Important update: Healthcare facilities
CDC has updated select ways to operate healthcare systems effectively in response to COVID-19 vaccination. Learn more
Given new evidence on the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant, CDC has updated the guidance for fully vaccinated people. CDC recommends universal indoor masking for all teachers, staff, students, and visitors to K-12 schools, regardless of vaccination status. Children should return to full-time in-person learning in the fall with layered prevention strategies in place.
The White House announced that vaccines will be required for international travelers coming into the United States, with an effective date of November 8, 2021. For purposes of entry into the United States, vaccines accepted will include FDA approved or authorized and WHO Emergency Use Listing vaccines. More information is available here.
Travel requirements to enter the United States are changing, starting November 8, 2021. More information is available here.

Clinical Care Considerations

Clinical Care Considerations

Clinical considerations for care of children and adults with confirmed COVID-19

Updated Jan. 27, 2023

This page provides clinicians and public health professionals with key information and evidence for clinical considerations when diagnosing and managing patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. For evidence-based treatment recommendations for COVID-19, visit the National Institutes of Health (NIH) COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines prepared by the COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel. Also see Variants of the Virus and Vaccines for COVID-19.

Table of Contents

Key Points

  • The clinical presentation of COVID-19 varies from asymptomatic infection to critical illness; symptoms can change during the course of illness.
  • When testing for current SARS-CoV-2 infection, CDC recommends that clinicians use molecular (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] or nucleic acid amplification test [NAAT]) or antigen tests (viral tests) that detect SARS-CoV-2 or its components, not a serologic test that detects antibodies. A chest radiograph or computed tomography (CT) images alone are not recommended to diagnose COVID-19, but might be helpful in assessing and managing COVID-19 patients.
  • Clinicians caring for populations including children, pregnant and recently pregnant people, people who are moderately or severely immunocompromised, people with confirmed or suspected multisystem inflammatory syndrome, and people with post-COVID conditions may have additional clinical considerations.
  • When treating patients with COVID-19, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends clinicians consider treating patients according to risk of progression to severe COVID-19 or the severity of COVID-19. Patients who are reinfected with SARS-CoV-2 likely will experience less severe illness than during the initial infection, but some patients will experience more severe illness.

Co-circulation of Influenza Viruses and SARS-CoV-2

Clinicians can find useful resources below to help in their decision making and action when influenza and SARS-CoV-2 are co-circulating.

Summary of Updates


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